Oral History Interview with Frances Hogan, May 23, 1991, and June 3, 1991.
"As the first director of women's athletics at the University of North Carolina, Frances Hogan shouldered the task of finding adequate facilities, equipment, and competitions for sports programs that were generally ignored by the administration. Hogan begins the interview by discussing the few athletic options that were available when she started working for UNC in 1946 and the various ways the coaches worked around limitations. She also compares the $1,000 salaries paid to women's coaches in 1973 with the millions of dollars some coaches received in the early 1990s. Hogan devoted many hours to building the athletic program even when she was paid no salary at all. She explains how she juggled coaching with teaching and family responsibilities, and tells stories of how students adjusted to barely adequate facilities. Some became nationally successful, though female athletic competition was discouraged by many people who thought it was a masculine activity. Hogan continues with a description of the rules governing women's club sports and how those rules changed with the switch to NCAA division sports and with the introduction of Title IX in the 1970s. She feels that Title IX brought necessary improvements that helped students realize the value of women's athletics. In general, she feels the program has been successful for several decades, but she worries that the most publicized male athletics programs receive too much funding."