"In 1910, an international consortium of banks refinanced Haiti’s international debt and took control of the country’s treasury. In 1914, the bank refused to issue gold payments to the Haitian government and asked the U.S. military to protect the gold reserves. On December 17, 1914, U.S. marines landed in Haiti and moved the gold to the bank’s New York vaults. Eight months later, the marines again landed in Port au Prince, Haiti’s capital, this time claiming the need to protect foreign lives and property. They placed Port au Prince under martial law, ruthlessly subdued armed resistance in rural areas, and began training a new Haitian militia. Charlemagne Péralte led a resistance movement. In this “call to arms” and letter to the French minister, Péralte attacked President Wilson as a hypocrite for claiming to respect the sovereignty of small nations of Europe while occupying Haiti and urged Haitians to resist the Americans. (An English translation of the letter follows the French version.)" GMU History Matters
"The Rubenstein Library holds two documents from the papers of Jean Baptiste Pierre Aime Colheux de Longpré, a French colonizer of Saint-Domingue (Haiti). The first is a very rare manuscript copy of the Haitian Declaration of Independence (1804). This declaration by the army of black Haitians established the first black republic in the world. The second is an excerpted copy of a will for Monsieur de la Martinier (1799) which mentions those with family members who became key Haitian revolutionaries."
A site by Julia Gaffield, Assistant Professor in the Department of History at Georgia State University that provides information on and access to various primary and secondary sources related to the history of Haiti.
"This site, produced by Duke’s Haiti Lab, is meant to serve as a guide and portal to online resources about Haiti, specifically historical materials relating to the country and writings by Haitian authors."
"The Alan Lomax Collection includes ethnographic field documentation, materials from Lomax’s various projects, and cross-cultural research created and collected by Alan Lomax and others on traditional song, music, dance, and body movement from around the world. Lomax conducted fieldwork in the Bahamas, the Caribbean, England, France, Georgia (Republic), Haiti, Ireland, Italy, Morocco, Romania, Russia, Scotland, Spain, the United States, and Wales from the 1930s-1990s. The collection contains approximately 650 linear feet of manuscripts, 6400 sound recordings, 5500 graphic images, and 6000 moving images."
between the United States of America and the Republic of Haiti : with protocol and exchange of notes : message from the President of the United States transmitting a Treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation between the United States and the Republic of Haiti : together with a protocol and an exchange of notes relating thereto, signed at Port-au-Prince on March 3, 1955.
"The Archive of Haitian Religion and Culture: Collaborative Research and Scholarship on Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora will create a freely accessible multimedia digital library that uses audiovisual technologies to curate, elucidate and facilitate the advanced search of the rich primary materials of a central Haitian and Haitian-American spiritual tradition in order to promote discovery and educate a broad public."
"In the American South, slaves were typically dispersed among large populations of armed and vigilant whites. As a result, American slave rebellions failed to achieve their goals. This was not the case in the West Indies, where plantation owners remained at home in Europe and left overseers in charge of large populations of slaves. In 1791, a revolution began on the island of St. Domingo (Hispaniola, the home of Haiti and the Dominican Republic). In 1804, after years of fighting, the Republic of Haiti, a black republic composed of former slaves, freed itself from France. News of the Haitian revolution was an inspiration for American slaves but a source of severe anxiety for their masters. The arrival of Haitian refugees—black, white, and mulatto—in American port cities, including Charleston, increased masters’ fear that the black revolution would spread to the United States. Slaveowners cracked down, jumpily interpreting every transgression as an uprising in the making. "
"U.S. marines occupied Haiti from 1915 to 1934. By 1919, Haitian Charlemagne Péralte had organized more than a thousand cacos, or armed guerrillas, to militarily oppose the marine occupation. The marines responded to the resistance with a counterinsurgency campaign that razed villages, killed thousands of Haitians, and destroyed the livelihoods of even more. In 1926 the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) organized a committee to look into conditions in Haiti and offer alternatives to the American policy of routinely sending in the marines. "
"Largely at the behest of American bankers, U.S. marines occupied Haiti from 1915 to 1934. By 1919, Haitian Charlemagne Péralte had organized more than a thousand cacos, or armed guerrillas, to militarily oppose the marine occupation. The marines responded to the resistance with a counterinsurgency campaign that razed villages, killed thousands of Haitians, and destroyed the livelihoods of even more. The military atrocities and abuse of power during the Caco War of 1919–1920 led to a U.S. Senate investigation into the occupation. In these excerpts from the “Inquiry into Occupation and Administration of Haiti,” the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Haiti and Santo Domingo interviewed Haitians about marine conduct in the guerrilla war against the cacos." GMU History Matters
"U.S. marines occupied Haiti from 1915 to 1934. By 1919, Haitian Charlemagne Péralte had organized more than a thousand cacos, or armed guerrillas, to militarily oppose the marine occupation. The marines responded to the resistance with a counterinsurgency campaign that razed villages, killed thousands of Haitians, and destroyed the livelihoods of even more. American organizations such as the NAACP opposed the U.S. occupation of Haiti. They sent delegations that investigated conditions and protested the blatant racism and imperialism of U.S. policy in Haiti in the early 20th century. An article from 1920, by NAACP leader James Weldon Johnson, countered the standard justifications for U.S. occupation of Haiti." GMU History Matters
"Based on acclaimed author Zora Neale Hurston's personal experiences in Haiti and Jamaica—where she participated as an initiate rather than just an observer during her visits in the 1930s—Tell My Horse is a fascinating firsthand account of the mysteries of Voodoo." Amazon.com summary