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BIOL 391 - OENB Junior Seminar: Citations and Citation Styles

Summer 2022

Understanding Citations

Can you tell from a citation if an item is a book or a journals?  The guide below gives you clues.

The boxes below are different citation styles preferred by different professors in the Sciences.  Whichever one you are asked to use,  use it CONSISTENTLY in your paper.

American Journal of Botany Citation Style

"References listed in LITERATURE CITED—List citations in alphabetical order by author. Single-author titles precede multi-authored titles by the same senior author, regardless of date.

List works by the same author(s) chronologically, beginning with earliest date of publication. Spell out all author(s)’ names. Use “a”, “b” (determined alphabetically) for works with the same author(s) and year citation.

For multi-authored works, list the first seven authors and then “et al.”— unless there are only eight authors and then list all eight.

Type author names in citations in upper and lower case.... For formatting examples (note spacing, capitalizatio, italics, etc.), go to"

APA Citation Style

APA Citation Style guides

"Wetlands" Citation Style

Instructions provided for authors obtained from the publisher's website are listed below:

Citations within the text, they should be cited chronologically (oldest to newest),

The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text.

Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.

Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work. All journal names must be written out in full.

• Journal article

Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. European Journal of Applied Physiology 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8

Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:

Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. New England Journal of Medicine 965:325–329

• Article by DOI

Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. Journal of Molecular Medicine. Doi:10.1007/s001090000086

• Book

South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London

• Book chapter

Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257

• Online document

Doe J (1999) Title of subordinate document. In: The dictionary of substances and their effects. Royal Society of Chemistry. Available via DIALOG. of subordinate document. Accessed 15 Jan 1999

• Dissertation

Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

"Conservation Biology" Citation Style


  • Provide the full names of all journal titles.
  • Do not italicize titles.
  • Use boldface for the journal’s volume number and the colon following the volume number.
  • Do not provide an issue number unless pages in a volume are not numbered consecutively from the first issue to the last issue 
  • If there are more than 10 authors, use et al. (Howard, G., et al.) instead of listing the names of all authors.

Journal Article:   

Author, F. M. Date. Title of paper. Journal title volume number (issue number):p–p.

Christensen, N. D., and J. Eu. 2003. Ecology of cranberry bogs:a case study. Ecology 59:1147–1167, 1178–1187.

Edited books:

Cran, B., C. Boy, and L. Shi. 1911. Native forest birds of Guam. Pages 4–8 in T. Wu and L. Lee, editors. Flora and fauna of Guam. 2nd edition. Tell Books, Ace, Ohio.


Barnes, J., and S. Craig. 2003. Conservation status of riparian areas in southeastern Oregon. General technical report N-24. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon.

Online journals:

No digital object identifier (DOI): Sandringham, J. 2006. Effects of urbanization of agricultural land on an endemic moth, rosemary pink. Ecology and Society 3: http://EcologySociety . . . ./art5.

Has DOI: Hunstanton, V. 2008. Effects of deep-sea injection of carbon dioxide. Deep Ocean Research DOI: 1976xxi27in2.

  • No access dates are needed for citations of online journals.

Internet sources other than journals:

  • Include the name of the organization hosting the Website, their geographical location, and an access date.

Carne, A. 2003. The art of leaving well enough alone. National Science Teachers Association, Washington, D.C. Available from (accessed March 2002).

"Ecology" Citation Style

Citation style should follow that of the journal, Ecology.

Example of a citation for a journal article:

  • Carbone, C., and J. L. Gittleman. 2002. A common rule for the scaling of carnivore density. Science 295:2273–2276.
  • Author 1 last name, initials, and Author 2 initials, last name. Year. Title of article. Title of Journal Volume of Journal: Pages of article.

Example of a citation for a journal article with multiple (>2) authors:

  • Allen, M. R., J. N. VanDyke, and C. E. Caceres. 2011. Metacommunity assembly and sorting in newly formed lake communities. Ecology 92:269–275.
  • Author 1 last name, initials, Author 2 initials, last name, Author 3 initials, last name, Author 4 initials, last name, Author 5 initials, last name, and Author 6 initials, last name. Year. Title of article. Title of Journal Volume of Journal: Pages of article.


"Proc. of the Entolmological Society" Citation Style

Citation style should follow that of the Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington.


Day, W.C. 1953. New species and notes on California mayfiles. II. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 30: 15-29.

"Literature cited.—Cite only references referred to in the text; list alphabetically by author; and spell out references (e.g., journal names) completely, including conjunctions and prepositions. Do not italicize journal names or titles of books.

References in text must be formatted as follows: (Henry 1990), (Henry 1987, 1990), (Smith 1990, Henry
1991), (Smith 1990; Henry 1991, 1995), (Miller 1990a, 1990b), (Miller 1990a, 1990b; Smith 1990; Henry 1991, 1995), and (Gagné et al. 1999)." 

from Instructions for Authors by the Entomological Society of Washington.

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